1 The Lord said to Moses, 2 “Give this command to the Israelites and say to them: ‘Make sure that you present to me at the appointed time my food offerings, as an aroma pleasing to me.’ 3 Say to them: ‘This is the food offering you are to present to the Lord: two lambs a year old without defect, as a regular burnt offering each day. 4 Offer one lamb in the morning and the other at twilight, 5 together with a grain offering of a tenth of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with a quarter of a hin of oil from pressed olives. 6 This is the regular burnt offering instituted at Mount Sinai as a pleasing aroma, a food offering presented to the Lord. 7 The accompanying drink offering is to be a quarter of a hin of fermented drink with each lamb. Pour out the drink offering to the Lord at the sanctuary. 8 Offer the second lamb at twilight, along with the same kind of grain offering and drink offering that you offer in the morning. This is a food offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord.
The sacrificial laws have been given to the Israelites quite often, as we read about in Exodus, Leviticus and in Numbers- all with their various supplements added. The time frame of which this chapter takes place is uncertain, however it is believed to take place on the eve of entering the Promised Land, just prior to Moses death.
These various routine sacrifices were meant for the times of settled habitation (while in the promised land) and not during the times of conquest. Knowing that Moses will not be with the Israelites much longer, the Lord makes sure Moses tells the Israelites these commands and that they follow every detail.
9 “‘On the Sabbath day, make an offering of two lambs a year old without defect, together with its drink offering and a grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with olive oil. 10 This is the burnt offering for every Sabbath, in addition to the regular burnt offering and its drink offering.
The Sabbath Offerings was similar to the Daily Offerings, (and is implemented here for the first time), with the addition of two lambs without blemish and two-tenths of an ephah of flour. It is unclear in scripture if the lambs were to be slain in the same way, however in practice it was preformed immediately after the morning sacrifice of the day.
11 “‘On the first of every month, present to the Lord a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect. 12 With each bull there is to be a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil; with the ram, a grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil; 13 and with each lamb, a grain offering of a tenth of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil. This is for a burnt offering, a pleasing aroma, a food offering presented to the Lord. 14 With each bull there is to be a drink offering of half a hin of wine; with the ram, a third of a hin; and with each lamb, a quarter of a hin. This is the monthly burnt offering to be made at each new moon during the year. 15 Besides the regular burnt offering with its drink offering, one male goat is to be presented to the Lord as a sin offering.
On the “first of every month” or better translated, on the “beginning of every month”, the Israelites are required to perform in detail, the Monthly Offerings.
This chapter also introduces the Israelites to the “new-moon” offering, which is to be done on every “new moon” of the month. Later in scripture, this “new moon” offering will become to the month what the sabbath was to the week- a day of rest and of worship. (Isaiah 66:23, Ezek 46:1, Amos 8:5)
16 “‘On the fourteenth day of the first month the Lord’s Passover is to be held. 17 On the fifteenth day of this month there is to be a festival; for seven days eat bread made without yeast. 18 On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. 19 Present to the Lord a food offering consisting of a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect. 20 With each bull offer a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths; 21 and with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth. 22 Include one male goat as a sin offering to make atonement for you. 23 Offer these in addition to the regular morning burnt offering. 24 In this way present the food offering every day for seven days as an aroma pleasing to the Lord; it is to be offered in addition to the regular burnt offering and its drink offering. 25 On the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.
The Passover starts on the fifteenth of April, and lasts for seven days. The observance of the Passover had been celebrated by the Israelites for over 38 years or so, now and is once again made afresh to the Israelites.
The fourteenth day of the Passover month, was a day of fasting, but on the fifteenth day, there was to be a festival or feast to celebrate what God has done for them. Moses brings forth all the rules and regulations about the sacrifice rituals to be performed in detail.
The Festival of Weeks
26 “‘On the day of firstfruits, when you present to the Lord an offering of new grain during the Festival of Weeks, hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. 27 Present a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram and seven male lambs a year old as an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 28 With each bull there is to be a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths; 29 and with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth. 30 Include one male goat to make atonement for you. 31 Offer these together with their drink offerings, in addition to the regular burnt offering and its grain offering. Be sure the animals are without defect.
The Festival of Weeks or the Feast of Weeks occurred in late spring, seven weeks after Passover and the ingathering of the first harvest, aka the day of first fruits.
According to tradition, the festival of weeks was the time of giving of the law of Moses at Mount Sinai. The Festival of Weeks aka known as the Feast of 50 days is also known as Pentecost. Pentecost means “fiftieth”. In the New Testament, Pentecost is the time when the Holy Spirit came upon the disciples, as promised by Jesus, and there was a harvest of new believers.
In this chapter Moses brings forth all the rules and regulations concerning the Festival of Weeks sacrifices.