1 The Lord said to Moses, 2 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘After you enter the land I am giving you as a home 3 and you present to the Lord food offerings from the herd or the flock, as an aroma pleasing to the Lord—whether burnt offerings or sacrifices, for special vows or freewill offerings or festival offerings—
It is unclear as to when this chapter occurs, however it is assumed to have been during or shortly after their time of wondering, towards the end of their journey, consequently at a time when most or all of the rebellious generation has died off. The Lord instructs Moses to speak to the Israelites and give to them these supplemental or add-on instructions concerning their food and drink offerings, for when they enter the promised land.
4 then the person who brings an offering shall present to the Lord a grain offering of a tenth of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with a quarter of a hin of olive oil. 5 With each lamb for the burnt offering or the sacrifice, prepare a quarter of a hin of wine as a drink offering.
6 “‘With a ram prepare a grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with a third of a hin of olive oil, 7 and a third of a hin of wine as a drink offering. Offer it as an aroma pleasing to the Lord.
8 “‘When you prepare a young bull as a burnt offering or sacrifice, for a special vow or a fellowship offering to the Lord, 9 bring with the bull a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of the finest flour mixed with half a hin of olive oil, 10 and also bring half a hin of wine as a drink offering. This will be a food offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 11 Each bull or ram, each lamb or young goat, is to be prepared in this manner. 12 Do this for each one, for as many as you prepare.
After the Israelites enter the promised land, these new laws were to accompany both private and public sacrifices, and are to be arranged according to a fixed scale. ephah= 1 bushel, hin= 1.5 gallons.
lamb offering- 1/10 ephah , oil- 1/4 hin, wine 1/4 hin
ram offering- 2/10 ephah, oil- 1/3 hin, wine 1/3 hin
bull offering- 3/10 ephah, oil- 1/2 hin, wine 1/2 hin
(notice that the amounts vary with each type of animal offered, and is to be done for each animal offered)
13 “‘Everyone who is native-born must do these things in this way when they present a food offering as an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 14 For the generations to come, whenever a foreigner or anyone else living among you presents a food offering as an aroma pleasing to the Lord, they must do exactly as you do. 15 The community is to have the same rules for you and for the foreigner residing among you; this is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. You and the foreigner shall be the same before the Lord: 16 The same laws and regulations will apply both to you and to the foreigner residing among you.’”
Since they are to do these add-on instructions after they have entered the promised land, every Israelite who is born there, after they have entered, must also preform these sacrifices according to God’s instructions- for all the generations to come. If a foreigner or anyone else is living among them, and they offer a food or drink offering to the Lord, they must also follow these precise instructions as well.
17 The Lord said to Moses, 18 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land to which I am taking you 19 and you eat the food of the land, present a portion as an offering to the Lord. 20 Present a loaf from the first of your ground meal and present it as an offering from the threshing floor. 21 Throughout the generations to come you are to give this offering to the Lord from the first of your ground meal.
The Lord tells Moses to speak to the Israelites, and tell them that when they enter the promised land and they eat the food of the land there, they are too present a portion of it as an offering to the Lord. Then they are to present a loaf made from the first of their ground meal and present it as an offering from the threshing floor, to God, and they are instructed to do this throughout the generations to come.
Offerings for Unintentional Sins
22 “‘Now if you as a community unintentionally fail to keep any of these commands the Lord gave Moses— 23 any of the Lord’s commands to you through him, from the day the Lord gave them and continuing through the generations to come— 24 and if this is done unintentionally without the community being aware of it, then the whole community is to offer a young bull for a burnt offering as an aroma pleasing to the Lord, along with its prescribed grain offering and drink offering, and a male goat for a sin offering. 25 The priest is to make atonement for the whole Israelite community, and they will be forgiven, for it was not intentional and they have presented to the Lord for their wrong a food offering and a sin offering. 26 The whole Israelite community and the foreigners residing among them will be forgiven, because all the people were involved in the unintentional wrong.
If as a whole body or community, the people are guilty of any neglect of the public ceremonies, or even any deviation from any of the commands instituted, whether involuntarily or through ignorance, then the following commands are prescribed to atone for that sin; the whole community is to offer a young bull for a burnt offering, along with its prescribed grain and drink offering, and a male goat for the sin offering. The priest is to make atonement for the whole Israelite community, and they will be forgiven. This covers both the Israelites and the foreigners living there.
27 “‘But if just one person sins unintentionally, that person must bring a year-old female goat for a sin offering. 28 The priest is to make atonement before the Lord for the one who erred by sinning unintentionally, and when atonement has been made, that person will be forgiven. 29 One and the same law applies to everyone who sins unintentionally, whether a native-born Israelite or a foreigner residing among you.
If one person sins unintentionally, then that person must bring a year-old female goat for a sin offering. The priest will make atonement for the one who sinned, and when complete that person will be forgiven. The same law applies for every Israelite and foreigner living among them.
30 “‘But anyone who sins defiantly, whether native-born or foreigner, blasphemes the Lord and must be cut off from the people of Israel. 31 Because they have despised the Lord’s word and broken his commands, they must surely be cut off; their guilt remains on them.’”
If anyone sins defiantly, whether an Israelite or foreigner, by committing this sin they are blaspheming the Lords commands and therefor must be cut off from the people, and their guilt shall remain on them.
The Sabbath-Breaker Put to Death
32 While the Israelites were in the wilderness, a man was found gathering wood on the Sabbath day. 33 Those who found him gathering wood brought him to Moses and Aaron and the whole assembly, 34 and they kept him in custody, because it was not clear what should be done to him. 35 Then the Lord said to Moses, “The man must die. The whole assembly must stone him outside the camp.” 36 So the assembly took him outside the camp and stoned him to death, as the Lord commanded Moses.
While the Israelites were in the wilderness there were laws for various things, now once they are in the promised land, God re-enforced the laws with a more stricter punishment. As an example, when someone gathered wood on the Sabbath Day and was found out, originally they would be brought to Moses and Aaron in front of the whole assembly and then kept in custody waiting for them to decide the punishment- now the whole assembly must bring that person outside the camp to be stoned to death..
Tassels on Garments
37 The Lord said to Moses, 38 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘Throughout the generations to come you are to make tassels on the corners of your garments, with a blue cord on each tassel. 39 You will have these tassels to look at and so you will remember all the commands of the Lord, that you may obey them and not prostitute yourselves by chasing after the lusts of your own hearts and eyes. 40 Then you will remember to obey all my commands and will be consecrated to your God. 41 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt to be your God. I am the Lord your God.’”
Then the Lord tells Moses to tell the Israelites- from this day forward they are to make for themselves tassels or fringes with blue cord on each tassel, and wear them on the corners of their garments. (the Israelites wore an outer garment which had four corners) This way they will look at these tassels everyday to remind them to follow and obey the laws and commands of God, and also as a remembrance that it was the Lord their God- who brought them up out of Egypt! This is to be done throughout the generations to come as well. (a side note… it was these same tassels that the woman with the issue of blood wanted to touch, that Jesus was wearing in Matt 9:20)